a- First independent years and nine years of resistance:
Opposing Preliminary Agreement signed on March 6, 1946, and Provisional Agreement signed on September 14, 1946, the French Colonialism invaded Hanoi after landing in Danang, Do Son and attacking Haiphong and Lang Son, showing its intention to make a surprise assault in the capital city. We had taken precautions; therefore, we could gain the initiative in the combat. On 20:30 of December 19, 1946, electric light suddenly went out, Lang Fort starting firing, giving the signal for the beginning of a war.
The fight happened violently to protect each house and street.
Soldiers and people of Hanoi frustrated the plot “attacking and occupying the city within 24 hours” of the French people.
At 8:00 pm on February 17, 1946, Capital Regiment pulled out of the city entirely, destroying the invader’s plan. The retreat as well as our force’s fighting days caused a shock for the French people.
After a nine-year fight with the glorious victory of Dien Bien Phu, Geneva Agreement was inked in July 1954. In September 1954, the Hanoi Politico-military Committee was set up. Major-general Vuong Thua Vu, Chief Commander of shock troop brigade was chairman and Doctor Tran Duy Hung was vice chairman.
In the morning of October 8, 1954, solider units were divided into many groups to advance towards the inner city. At 6 pm on October 9, 1954, soldiers traveled from the suburb to the inner city and were divided into many arms to liberate stations, governor-general palace, Don Thuy area, Bo Ho area and Resident Superior Palace. At 16:00, the French troops withdrew from the city to the north of Long Bien Bridge. At 16:30, Vietnamese soldiers completely controlled the city.
Our troops came wherever, Hanoi people rushed into the two sides of road, raising flags and flowers high and cheering loudly. Welcome gates and slogans appeared at every house.
On October, 10, 1954, the great army advanced toward the inner city and Hanoi was totally free from the French domination.
b- Hanoi pioneered in the cause of industrialization and modernization in the northern region of Vietnam. The city gave material and human resource support to the liberation of the south and make the historic victory “ Dien Bien Phu in the air”, completely defeating the American air force.
After the second attack of the US’s forces (12/1972), Hanoi focused on dealing with consequences of the war, restoring the economy and transport infrastructure. In 1975, Hanoi built 265 state-owned enterprises and 237 traditional handicraft cooperatives. The total industrial production value in 1975 increased by 30 folds against that of 1955. The total output converted into paddy was estimated up 4.3 times compared to 1955. The state-run trade sector opened 1,231 outlets, meeting demand of soldiers and people in the war time. The city built and put into operation 320 works to serve production demand and 58 social welfare works. In 1975, Hanoi built 60,000 m2 of houses and finished the construction of 24 high-rise buildings and 22 bridges. In 1975-1976 school year, the city had 350 high schools, up 81 schools compared to 1965.
c- Healing the war injuries, restoring and developing the economy in the 1976-1985 period: After the national unification, in April 1976, the Vietnamese National Assembly selected Hanoi as the capital of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Implementing President Ho Chi Minh’s testament, the municipal party and people were determined to build the city more proper. At that time, the whole country raised up many patriotic emulation movements, four industrial renovation programs, accommodation improvement, transport development and price and salary arrangement in distribution activities. Key infrastructure works such as Noi Bai International Airport, Thang Long Bridge, Duong Bridge, Chuong Duong Bridge, road 6 (Hanoi-Ha Dong section) and many high-rise buildings in Bac Thanh Xuan, Kim Giang, Hanoi University and Quynh Loi collective zone were built and put into use. Several sectors such as electronics, food processing, engineering, chemicals and machine manufacturing were formed. In the agricultural sector, many areas specializing in vegetable growing in Tu Liem, Dong Anh and Thanh Tri were set up. Hanoi foreign trade revenue reached $247.8 million.
d-To execute the reform comprehensively to build a civilized and modern capital on the base of planning orientations until 2000, 2010 and a vision for further development through 2020.
During the first years of the renovation time (1986-1990), the whole country and Hanoi fell into imbalance due to bad impacts resulted from centrally-planned mechanism and remains of the war. Slow development and modest production quality pushed local people into difficulties. Hanoi actively found out solutions for economic development, changed the economic management mechanism and allowed enterprises to carry out their production plans and also follow the market demand. It gradually arranged production unions, taking the state-owned as the center. Therefore, the city’s average annual GDP growth reached 4.5 percent. The state-owned sector gained 5.2 percent and the non-state sector 2.8%.
The period to implement socio-economic development (1991-2000): For the first time in carrying out a five-year plan in the 1991-1995 period, Hanoi fulfilled and surpassed many socio-economic development goals. The city gained a stable and high economic growth rate. The GDP growth was estimated at 12.5%, accounting for 1.66 folds of 1995 and 3.8 folds of 1985. Economic structure transition concentrated on industrialization and modernization, forming a new economic structure of industry-services-agriculture; it also focused on developing high-quality sectors and exports. Total investment for the 1991-1995 period was estimated at VND32 trillion.
Between 1996 and 2000, the city paid more attention to developing the state-owned economic sector in the areas of socio-economic infrastructure, finance system, banking, insurance and key trade enterprises. In 2000, Hanoi accounted for 3.6% and 2.8% of the country’s total population and area respectively and contributed to 7.8% of the national GDP, 9.4% of export value and 11.7% of social investment.
In 1999, Hanoi was presented with the title “The city for peace” and selected as the city to launch the campaign “International year of peace- 2000” by UNESCO, which was the capital city’s honor. In 2000, the state and party granted the city the title of Hero Capital.
Period to boost industrialization and modernization (2000-2010): Hanoi accelerated the process to arrange privatization, big investment for state-owned firms, improving equipment and technology and management model, attracting investment in different sectors as well as upgrading urban infrastructure.
In the first years of the 21st century, the city saw remarkable change, particularly in the fields of technical infrastructure, contributing to bringing the capital city to become an economic-political-cultural center of the whole nation. Hanoi worked out four main programs, including the development of modern industrial parks, industrial development along with planning of material-growing areas and industrial production of Hanoi-Haiphong-Quang Ninh economic triangle, implementing initial steps in industrialization and modernization cause. Besides, it set up key industrial groups: electricity-electronics, information and technology, metallurgy and engineering, food processing, garment and textile and footwear. The local tourism and services industry gradually developed. Another urgent task for Hanoi is building the capital to become a modern and civilized city of 100 million people and matching national status in the 21st.